Signature Academic Contributions                                                                                                   代表性學術貢獻


Context formulation and the invocation of membership categories in an L2 classroom setting

In: Journal of Pragmatics, 140(1): 100-111 (2019)

The purpose of this article is to examine the practical work that participants in a second language (L2) classroom are doing in the course of their actions. These actions are observed through the accounts produced by members, which in turn represent their rationalities, or ethno-methods (Garfinkel, 2002), that are in use during the ongoing sequence of utterances. Based on the extracts presented for analysis, this article concentrates on how participants produce and recognise the context in which they are, and to which they orient their work; and how this context becomes an inspectable phenomenon of inquiry through ethno-methods, such as the invocation of membership categories (‘teacher’ and ‘student’) produced along the course of the interaction. The materials on which I shall focus my discussions were gathered from a first grade Portuguese as an L2 classroom in a primary school in Macau, China. The results indicated an ongoing production of categorial aspects that enabled participants to have no problems in following the sequential organisation of the talk and other conduct in a way that it was ‘just enough’ to make L2 lesson events happen.

Also read:

Marques, J. B. V.; Carlin, A. P. & Moutinho, R. (2022) A guided tour in the Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory of the University of Coimbra: setting-specific practices in an informal educational environment. Educational Studies, online first:

Morelo, B. & Moutinho, R. (2021). Contando histórias: Categorização de pertencimento e instruções-em-ação em um ambiente de ensino e aprendizagem de PLA. Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada, 21(1): 155-195. DOI:

Moutinho, R. (2020). Sacks and the study of the local organization of second language lessons. In: R. Smith, R. Fitzgerald, and W. Housley (eds.) On Sacks: Materials, Methods and Inspirations (pp. 172-181). London: Routledge. DOI:

Moutinho, R. (2020). The pervasive control of a puppet: Teacher and students negotiating power in a foreign language class. Linguistics Journal, 14 (2): 157-184.

Moutinho, R. (2019). The dynamic layering of relational pairs in L2 classrooms: The inextricable relationship between sequential and categorial analysis. Pragmatics, 29(4): 571-594.